Hwaseong Fortress

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Template:Infobox World Heritage Site

Hwaseong Fortress
Image:Bifyu 8.jpg
Korean name
Hangul 화성
Hanja
Revised
Romanization
Hwaseong
McCune-
Reischauer
Hwasŏng

Hwaseong (Brilliant Fortress), the wall surrounding the centre of Suwon, South Korea, was built in the late eighteenth century by King Jeongjo of the Joseon Dynasty to honour and house the remains of his father Prince Sado, who had been murdered by being locked alive inside a rice chest by his own father King Yeongjo having failed to obey his command to commit suicide. Located 30 kilometres south of Seoul and enclosing much of central Suwon including King Jeongjo's palace Haenggung, UNESCO designated the fortress a World Heritage site in 1997. The Suwoncheon, the main stream in Suwon, flows through the centre of the fortress.

Contents

History

Hwaseong Fortress was built over two and a half years, from 1794 to 1796 according to the designs of the architect Jeong Yak-yong, who would later become a renowned leader of the Silhak movement. Silhak, which means practical learning, encouraged the use of science and industry and Jeong incorporated fortress designs from Korea, China and Japan along with contemporary science into his plans. Use of brick as a building material for the fortress and employment of efficient pulleys and cranes were also due to the influence of Silhak.

Construction of the fortress was also a response to the collapse of the Korean front line during Hideyoshi's invasions of Korea. At the time, the dominant model for building fortresses in Korea was to make a simple wall for the city or town and a separate mountain fortress to which the people could evacuate in times of war. However, this fortress was built to include elements of a wall, defensive fortress, and town centre, the four main gates being used as the gates for the town. The arrow-launching platforms built along ramparts with crenellated parapets and battlements were defensive elements of the fortress while the wall also held secret gates for offensive actions.

The fortress took 700,000 man-hours to build and cost the national treasury 870,000 nyang, the currency at the time, and 1500 sacks of rice to pay the workers. In the past, government work had been carried out by corvée labour, but in this case workers were paid by the government, another sign of Silhak influence.

King Jeongjo apparently built this fortress to prepare for a move of the capital from Seoul to Suwon. Suwon was purported to be strategically positioned to connect Seoul with the Yellow Sea and China. The king wanted to leave the fracticious strife of the court to carry out reforms and believed that Suwon had the potential to grow into a new and prosperous capital. To encourage growth, he ordered people to move to Suwon at considerable expense and exempted them from taxes for ten years. King Jeongjo also ordered public work, such as the building of educational facilities to better facilitate the city as a capital.

A white paper, "Hwaseong Seongyeokuigwe" (Records of Hwaseong Fortress Construction), was published in 1800, shortly after Jeongjo died. It has ten volumes and proved invaluable for the reconstruction effort in 1970 after the fortress had been severely damaged during the Korean War. The volumes were divided by subject, the first covering the plans for building, including blueprints and a list of supervisors. The next six volumes detail the actual implementation of the building, such as the royal orders and records of the wages of the workers. The final three volumes are supplements and detail the construction of the adjoining palace, Haenggung. Manpower was allocated by speciality, dividing workers by trade, categorising them as foremen, stonemasons, labourers, etc. The records also detail the amounts of different materials used.

Overview of Structures

Four gates

The fortress has four gates: Janganmun (north gate), Hwaseomun (west), Paldalmun (south) and Changnyongmun (east). Janganmun and Paldalmun are the largest of the four main gates and resemble Seoul's Namdaemun in roof design and stone and woodwork. Indeed, Janganmun is the largest gate in Korea. Both the north and south gates are topped with two-storey wooden pavilions, while Hwaseomun's and Changyongmun's, those of the west and east gates respectively, have only one storey. The four main gates are encircled by miniature fortresses, which were manned by guards.

Wall

The wall is 5.74 kilometres in length and varies between four to six metres high, originally enclosing 1.3 square kilometres of land. On flat terrain the wall was generally built higher than that on either of the two hills over which it passes, as higher walls were seen as less necessary along hilltops. The parapets are made of stone and brick, like most of the fortress, and were 1.2 metres in height.

Although the southern section between the south gate and the location of the former south floodgate has not been restored, the remaining ninety percent is well-maintained and can be walked on foot.

Other structures

There were originally 48 structures along the wall of the fortress but seven have been lost to flooding, wars, or wear and tear. The fortress today features a floodgate, four secret gates, four guard platforms, two observation towers, two command posts, two archers' platforms, five firearms bastions, five sentry posts, four pavilions, a beacon tower and nine turrets.

There were originally three watchtowers, but only two remain, both three-storeyed and with distinctive wooden pavilions on top and embrasures for guns and lookouts.

The beacon tower has five chimneys to make different signals with smoke or fire. When one was lit it signalled peace, two meant the enemy had been spotted, three warned that the enemy was approaching, four meant the enemy had made it into the city, and five signals lit was an alert that fighting had begun.

Structures

The structures along the wall are listed below in anti-clockwise order beginning in the south, as the South Gate is the most accessible by public transport.

South Gate (팔달문)

Paldalmun, known locally as Nammun (South Gate), sits in the middle of a roundabout on a busy main road in central Suwon. Its stone base is capped with a two-storey wooden pavilion surrounded by a stone wall, though this pavilion was burned down during the Korean War. It was reconstructed in 1975. A small, semi-circular protective wall known as an ongseong, is located on the south side (outside) of the gate. The gate also houses a bell called Paldalmun Dongjong, which was originally cast in Gaeseong in 1080 and was refounded in 1687 by Dohwaseung, the chief priest of Manuisa Temple for use in Buddhist ceremonies. 123cm tall and 75cm in diameter, it hangs from a dragon-shaped suspension ring, has a flue pipe to set the tone and has a slightly curved body - features which are typical of Korean bells of that era. This particular bell's flue pipe has a design of the dragon's tail entwined around it and is topped with a lotus flower. The top of the bell has a line of Sanskrit words around it, while the bottom is decorated with arabesque designs. The decorative nipples are interspaced with Bodisattvas holding lotus flowers. The bell is very similar in design to that in Tongdosa, the bell at which differs notably from Paldalmun's only in size.[1]

South-East Gate Guard Platform (남동적대)

Both the south and north gates originally had guard platforms to either side. Today, only those beside the north gate remain.

South-East Observation Tower (동남공심돈)

Dongnam Gongsimdon, like that standing by Hwaseomun, was an observation tower standing beside the Suwoncheon. It is part of the section of Hwaseong which has not been restored.

Namsumun (남수문)

Namsumun, meaning South Floodgate, sat across the Suwoncheon at the downstream end of the city walls. The gate was a little over a kilometre from Hwahongmun, the gate at the upstream end. Construction began on February 28, 1794, was interrupted, but continued in November 1795, the structure being completed on March 25, 1796, but having been fully operational since completion of its basic structure on January 16 that year. The bridge had nine arches for the water to flow beneath: two more than Hwahongmun because of increase in flow. Above the bridge there was a large brick structure instead of the usual gatehouse, as this section of Hwaseong was one of the most vulnerable. This took up two thirds of the space above the arches, the remaining third being the bridge. The structure was destroyed completely by a massive flood in July 1922.

South-East Pavilion (동남각루)

Dongnam Gangnu, the south-eastern pavilion, sits on top of a small rise above the former location of Namsumun. Its location serves its purpose as a lookout tower well, as much of Hwaseong and the area outside to the south and east can been seen from here.

East Turret 3 (동삼치)

Dongsam Chi, the third eastern turret, lies halfway from the south-east pavilion to the second eastern sentry post. Like other turrets, it extends a short distance perpendicularly from the wall to enable guards to see and attack assailants who had already reached the fortress.

East Sentry Post 2 (동이포루)

Dong-i Poru, the second eastern sentry post, like other sentry posts, is a wooden structure sitting on a turret. Construction of this post was completed on July 3, 1796 and it was intended to defend the beacon tower. For this purpose, it extends further out from the wall than the north-western sentry post. It also lacks wooden front doors.

Beacon Tower (봉돈)

Bongdon, the beacon tower, sits midway from Paldalmun to Changryongmun. It is located intentionally in direct line with Haenggung so that the king could see its signals. Smokes and lights were used to signal the state of threats. The southernmost of its five chimneys was used during peacetime.

East Turret 2 (동이치)

Dong-i Chi, the second eastern turret, like the other nine turrets around Hwaseong, allowed soldiers to look out in many directions along the exterior of the wall.

East Sentry Post (동포루)

Dong Poru, the eastern sentry post, lies between the two eastern turrets. Construction of the post was completed on July 16, 1796. As with other sentry posts in Hwaseong, the interior is of multiple levels to allow various angles for firearms and other weapons.

East Turret 1 (동일치)

Dong-il Chi, the first eastern turret, is the first turret south of the first eastern sentry post, lying 148 metres along the wall towards the beacon tower.

East Sentry Post 1 (동일포루)

Dong-il Poru, the first eastern sentry post, was completed on July 10, 1796. Like the second eastern sentry post, it extends further from the wall than most posts.

East Gate (창룡문)

Changryongmun, known locally as Dongmun (East Gate), sits by a major road junction. Its stone base is capped with a one-storey wooden pavilion. The gate was destroyed during the Korean War, but was reconstructed in 1975.

North-East Crossbow Platform (동북노대)

Dongbuk Nodae is one of two crossbow platforms in the fortress and is situated within reach of the east gate and has a wide field of view as it sits on a corner of the wall, enabling archers to target assailants from many angles.

North-East Observation Tower (동북공심돈)

Dongbuk Gongsimdon, meaning the north-east observation tower, is situated beside Changryongmun. Oval in shape, its three stories stand 6.8 metres tall. The roof is accessible by an internal spiral staircase

East Command Post (동장대)

Dongjangdae, meaning eastern command post, stands next to Dongbuk Gongsimdon, facing Changryongmun across an archery field. It is nicknamed Yeonmudae, a reference to its second function as a training camp.

East Secret Gate (동암문)

Dongammun, the eastern secret gate, situated 140 metres from Dongjangdae, was used for passage of people, animals and munitions. Construction of the gate, which sits beneath a brick structure surmounted with a large round parapet, was completed on March 25, 1796.

North-East Pavilion (동북각루)

The north-east pavilion is known as Dongbuk Gangnu and nicknamed Banghwasuryujeong. It sits above Yongyeon, a pond surrounded by a small garden. It was originally intended to be the second battle command post, though its scenic location made it a place favoured instead for feasts.

Hwahongmun (화홍문)

Hwahongmun, otherwise known as Buksumun, is the gate under which the Suwoncheon flows on entering the area encompassed by Hwaseong. (It formerly exited through Namsumun, but this gate no longer exists.) The gate has the obvious function of being a bridge, but also housed cannons for defensive purposes. The Suwoncheon was widened at this point and the gate has seven arches through which it passes.

North-East Sentry Post (북동포루)

Bukdong Poru, the north-eastern sentry post, sits between Janganmun and Hwahongmun and serves the same purpose as the other sentry posts around Hwaseong. It was completed on September 23, 1794.

North-East Turret (북동치)

Bukdong Chi, the north-eastern turret, sits immediately to the east of the north-eastern gate guard platform.

North-East Gate Guard Platform (북동적대)

Bukdong Jeokdae is a platform immediately to the east of Janganmun. It housed a cannon to protect the gate and its ongseong.

North Gate (장안문)

Janganmun, known locally as Bukmun (North Gate), is the largest such gate in South Korea. Some believe this is intentional, as it is through this gate that visitors from Seoul will have entered Suwon and this would be in keeping with King Jeongjo's original desire to move the capital of the country to Suwon. Janganmun's stone base is capped with a two-storey wooden pavilion, both of which survived the Korean War intact. A small, semi-circular protective wall known as an ongseong, is located outside the gate.

North-West Gate Guard Platform (북서적대)

Bukseo Jeokdae is a platform immediately to the west of Janganmun. It housed a cannon to protect the gate and its ongseong.

North-West Sentry Post (북서포루)

Bukseo Poru is a bastion adjacent to Bukseo Jeokdae. Made from black bricks, it is divided into three storeys internally by boards. Firearms were secreted on these floors. The roof is unusual in design, being gabled on the inner side (towards the wall) and angled to the outer side (away from the wall). Construction was completed on September 24, 1794.

North Sentry Post (북포루)

Buk Poru is another bastion containing hidden firearms. This is closer to Hwaseomun than to Janganmun. Today a tourist information centre and public toilet stand on the north side of the bastion. Construction was completed on February 20, 1795.

North-West Observation Tower (서북공심돈)

Seobuk Gongsimdon is an observation tower standing directly adjacent to Hwaseomun, giving it the obvious function of being a lookout post to protect the gate. Built from bricks on three sides, its inside is partitioned into three storeys with two wooden floors, from which soldiers could fire cannons and other firearms. It is said that, in 1797, on visiting Suwon, King Jeongjo claimed to his companions that this was the first gongsimdon in Korea. Its construction was completed on March 10, 1796.

West Gate (화서문)

Hwaseomun is the west gate to Hwaseong. Its stone base is capped with a one-storey wooden pavilion.

North-West Pavilion (서북각루)

Seobuk Gangnu, facing a hill known as Sukjisan, is the lookout post immediately anti-clockwise from Hwaseomun. With less of an wide field of view than from the other side of the gate, it is shorter than the gongsimdon a short distance to the north-east. The pavilion's ground floor is fitted with an under-floor heating system.

West Turret 1 (서일치)

Seo-il Chi, meaning West Turret 1, is a small bulge in the wall to allow soldiers to fire upon anyone attempting to scale Hwaseong from the outside.

West Sentry Post (서포루)

There are two structures with the name Seo Poru, or West Sentry Post. From these, soldiers could fire concealed weapons. This particular structure, which sits partway up the hill named Paldalsan when heading anti-clockwise from Hwaseomun to Seojangdae, was completed on May 30, 1796. Because of its proximity to the western command post, it was one of Hwaseong's most heavily-armed posts.

West Turret 2 (서이치)

Seo-i Chi, the second turret on the west of Hwaseong, stands just below Seonodae on the slopes of Paldalsan. Its purpose, as with any turret, was to provide a location to attack people trying to scale the walls.

West Crossbow Platform (서노대)

Seonodae is an octagonal, steep-stepped, black brick platform directly adjacent to Seojangdae at the crest of Paldalsan when heading uphill from Hwaseomun. From here, archers could attack assailants in a wide range of directions and facing downhill, too.

West Command Post (서장대)

Seojangdae, meaning western command post, sits atop Paldalsan, a small hill over which the higher section of Hwaseong runs. Seojangdae was destroyed by a fire in 1996 and was reconstructed afterwards. However, on May 1, 2006, an arsonist attacked Seojangdae. The arsonist reportedly caused the fire by lighting his clothes and underwear with a cigarette lighter. The fire caused about ₩6 billion in damage (about $6 million), destroying the upper floor of the watchtower. Seojangdae was reconstructed in 2007.

West Secret Gate (서암문)

Seoammun, the West Secret Gate, lies 50 metres south of Seojangdae. Sitting on a forested part of the ridge of the hill Paldalsan, it was designed to provide access in and out under cover. Today, it is easily accessible from the road outside, being located near Jindallae (Azalea) Public Toilets.

West Sentry Post (서포루)

Seo Poru, the western sentry post, sits on a turret projecting from the wall 140 metres south of the West Secret Gate and has the same function as other sentry towers, being to house and secrete firearms. The structure was completed on August 18, 1796. It was intended to defend the western secret gate in the event of its discovery. The post shares its name with that between West Turrets 1 and 2.

West Turret 3 (서삼치)

Seosam Chi, the third western turret, has the same function as the other nine turrets around Hwaseong. It sits just north of the south-western spur.

South-West Secret Gate (서남암문)

Seonam Ammun is the beginning of a path to Seonam Gangnu, the south-western pavilion. The gate used to contain a house known as a posa, and Seonam Posa, the south-western posa, sat above the gate, enabling soldiers to keep watch and issue alerts.

South-West Spur (용도)

Hwaseong has a spur known as Yongdo to the south-west. It branches from the main ring at Seonam Ammun, at the top of the hill above Paldalmun, and runs to the south-west end of the ridge along Paldalsan, from the end of which Suwon Station can be seen. The pavilion here is known as Seonam Gangnu - the south-western pavilion - or Hwayangnu.

South-West Pavilion (서남각루)

Seonam Gangnu, also called Hwayangnu, lies at the end of the spur from Seonam Ammun, from which a lot of Suwon can be seen, including Suwon Station.

South Pavilion (남포루)

Nam Poru, like the other pavilions, is a wooden structure sitting atop a turret jutting out from the wall. This pavilion is situated on the slopes of Paldalsan uphill from Paldalmun, yet below Seonam Ammun.

South Turret (남치)

Nam Chi, the southern turret, juts out from the wall on the slopes of Paldalsan uphill from Paldalmun yet below Nam Poru.

South-West Gate Guard Platform (남서적대)

Both the south and north gates originally had guard platforms to either side. Today, only those beside the north gate remain.

Haenggung (행궁)

Haenggung, meaning detached palace, is a palace built within the walls of Hwaseong to house King Jeongjo when he was away from his palace in Seoul and worshipping at his father's tomb. When he was not in residence it was used by his delegated official as a base of government. Haenggung was also used for a 60th birthday party for King Jeongjo's mother, Princess Hong of Hyegyeonggung, elderly citizens' feasts and national exams.

The palace was built in 1789, but was expanded between 1794 and 1796 to house 600 compartments and in doing so became the largest haenggung in Korea.

Haenggung is a collection of 22 buildings, excluding the servants' quarters, arranged in an approximately rectangular layout at the eastern foot of Paldalsan, the small hill on which the western side of Hwaseong stands. The entrance to the palace from the centre of town is the main gate, Sinpungnu, known as Jinnamnu when it was constructed in 1790 but renamed five years later under King Jeongjo's orders.

Most of the palace, with the notable exception of Naknamheon, was destroyed under the Japanese colonial period. Restoration work began in 1996 and the palace opened to the public in October 2003.

There is a three-storey tourist information centre and exhibition hall and 3D theatre outside the front entrance of Haenggung. It is open from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m.

The main structures within the palace are listed as follows.

Sinpungnu (신풍루)

Sinpung means new home town, indicating that the main gate of Haenggung was named to reflect King Jeongjo's affection for Suwon.

Gyeongnyonggwan (경룡관)

This is the entrance to Jangnakdang, and means great dragon representing an empire.

Boknaedang (복내당)

These were the main quarters of Haenggung, so the yusu families resided here most of the time.

Naknamheon (낙남헌)

The state examinations and banquet for the poor (on the occasion of Lady Hong's 61st birthday) were held here.

Yuyeotaek (유여택)

King Jeongjo used this building to speak with his subjects.

Bongsudang (봉수당)

This building was used to celebrate the 61st birthday of Lady Hong.

Jangnakdang (장낙당)

This was King Jeongjo's bedroom in Haenggung. He prayed to Lady Hong for longevity here.

Deukjungjeong (득중정)

This was where King Jeongjo practised archery. The name implies that the king hit the bull's eye on every occasion.

Noraedang (노래당)

This structure was built as the king dreamt of abdicating the throne and retiring to Suwon in old age.

Oejeongniso (외정리소)

Events were held here to celebrate the arrival of the kings.

Jwaikmun (좌익문)

This is the gate between the first two courtyards after entering Haenggung through Sinpungnu.

Jungyangmun (중양문)

This is the gate between the second and third courtyards after entering Haenggung through Sinpungnu and continuing through Jwaikmun.

Hwaryeongjeon (화령전)

Next to Haenggung, built in 1801, is Hwaryeongjeon, a shrine housing the portraits King Jeongjo. It had been Jeongjo's unfulfilled desire to build this small complex, so it was constructed in the first year of King Sunjo's reign in his honour. The site was dedicated to King Jeongjo; however, unlike other such shrines, in which ancestral tablets are housed for religious services, Hwaryeongjeon houses a portrait (restored in 2005) of the king, which was a more usual protocol for honouring a living monarch.

The gates in Hwaryeongjeon are as follow: Oesammun (외삼문); Naesammun (내삼문); Dongcheukhyeobmun (동측협문); Bukcheukhyeobmun (북측협문); Namcheukhyeobmun (남측협문). The buildings, meanwhile, are called Punghwadang (풍화당), Iancheong (이안청), Bokdogak (복도각), Unhangak (운한각) and Jeonsacheong (전사청), while there is also a well, named Jejeong (제정).

Reconstruction and Repair

The main reconstruction of Hwaseong was in the 1970s, though it has undergone periodic maintenance since then. As of winter 2008 the wall has been under repair by Suwon City Council.

Festivals and Performances

Hwaseong is the focus of several performances and festivals. Most of the performances occur in the square in front of Haenggung and are as follow.

Weekend Performance

A variety of traditional performances are enacted each Saturday from March to November at 2 p.m.

Martial Arts Performance

Twenty-four martial arts are demonstrated following the routine used in King Jeongjo's time as king. The twenty-four arts were compiled in 1790 by Lee Deokmu and Park Jega, who had received orders as such from King Jeongjo and a master of martial arts at that time, Baek Dongsu. The textbook they made for instruction in martial arts was formed by mixing the arts of the Joseon Dynasty with martial arts from China and Japan. These martial arts were then practised by the soldiers of Hwaseong under the supervision of Jang Yongyeong. The demonstration occurs at 11 a.m. daily from March to November excepting Mondays, and is performed on Saturdays and Sundays only in December.

Royal Guards Ceremony

This ceremony is a reconstruction of that which was held in Hwaseong in the 1790s by the royal guards, who had been promoted to the position of hunryeon dogam, meaning training guards. There were twelve thousand guards housed in Korea's largest military camp. When King Jeongjo moved his father's body to Hwasan in Suwon in 1789 he named the tomb Hyeonryungwon and deployed soldiers from this camp to guard the new tomb. After changing the name of the fortress from Suwonbu to Hwaseong in 1793, a camp attached to Jang Yongyeong was built within the walls. The performance occurs at 2 p.m. each Sunday from March to November.

See also

References

External links

Template:World Heritage Sites in the Republic of Korea

Coordinates: 37°17′19″N 127°00′51″E / 37.28861, 127.01417es:Fortaleza de Hwasong fr:Forteresse de Hwaseong ko:수원 화성 id:Benteng Hwaseong it:Fortezza di Hwaseong nl:Hwaseong-vesting ja:華城 (世界遺産) pt:Fortaleza de Hwasong ru:Хвасон (крепость) fi:Hwasongin linnoitus sv:Hwasong vi:Thành Hwaseong zh:华城

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