Incheon International Airport
Incheon International Airport (IIA) Template:Airport codes (Korean: 인천국제공항) is the largest airport in South Korea, and one of the largest and busiest in Asia. Since 2006, it has been consecutively rated as one of the best airports in the world  and received the full 5-star ranking by Skytrax, the prestigious recognition shared only by Hong Kong International Airport and Singapore Changi Airport.
The airport opened for business in early 2001, replacing the older Gimpo International Airport, which now serves only domestic destinations plus shuttle flights to Tokyo International Airport (Haneda), Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport, and Kansai International Airport.
The airport serves as a hub for international civilian air transportation and cargo traffic in East Asia. Security facilities are state-of-the-art and medical inspection equipment is also very advanced, in response to terrorist threats and various epidemics in southwestern Asia. As a result, Incheon International Airport is considered Asia's most technologically facilitated airport.
Incheon International Airport is also currently Asia's eighth busiest airport in terms of passengers, the world's fifth busiest airport in terms of cargo and freight, and the world's eleventh busiest airport in terms of international passengers. 
Incheon International Airport is located west of Incheon, on Yeongjong-Yongyu Island on the West Coast. In the past, there were two separate islands of Yeongjong and Yongyu but the distance between them that were once covered by the sea was filled to form one island from two. Both of these islands were part of the city of Incheon.
It is connected to the mainland by Incheon International Airport Expressway (Expressway 130), a part of which is Yeongjong Bridge. The expressway also connects Gimpo Airport to provide connections between domestic flight service with international air traffic, an advantage that makes it far easier to travel from southern Korean regions to Incheon, and then to airports all over the globe. The airport is served by frequent bus service from all parts of South Korea as well as by traditional ferry service between Yeongjong pier and Incheon. Airport limousines operate around the clock from Seoul to Incheon, and several backup highway buses escort people from places within and outside Seoul.
The Incheon International Airport Railroad link to Gimpo International Airport (and Seoul Subway Line 5) opened on 23 March 2007, with a further extension to Seoul Station due for completion by January 2010.
The airport was awarded the "Best in Service Award in Class" at the 1st International Conference on Airport Quality and Service by the IATA and the ACI, and ranked second in "Best Airport Worldwide", behind Hong Kong International Airport, and ahead of Singapore Changi Airport. It was also ranked No. 1 in the world by the Airports Council International.
Seoul Incheon International Airport's terminal has 74 boarding gates altogether, with 44 in the main passenger building and 30 in Concourse A.
After the Seoul Olympics of 1988, international air traffic to Korea increased at a tremendous rate. Especially as time progressed into the 1990s, it became apparent that Gimpo International Airport could not keep up with the increase in air traffic. As such, in order to reduce the load on Gimpo International Airport, and establish a new airport which could become the centre of air traffic in the region, construction of the airport began in November 1992. The airport was constructed on reclaimed land between Yeongjong Island and Youngyu Island. It took eight years to construct the airport, and an additional six months to test operate. The airport was officially opened in March 2001. The airport was designed to be constructed in multiple stages, more commonly known as phases. Currently, the airport is in the second phase, with the third phase construction needed to be reviewed.
When the airport was first opened, there were numerous problems, most of them having to do with the baggage handling systems. In fact, the problem was first discovered during the test phase, but was never worked out in time. As a result, for a month after the airport opened, the system had to be operated on a semi-automatic mode. Nevertheless, most of the problems were worked out within a month, and the airport continued to operate normally, exceeding all expectations.
After the September 11, 2001 attacks, the airport’s security system was upgraded to state of the art systems, and medical inspection equipment was also upgraded in response to the various epidemics occurring in neighboring countries. In addition, following the advice of ICAO on upgrading various facilities as well as independently pursuing airport enhancements have caused the airport to be recognized as the most technologically advanced airport in Asia.
Due to the positive response towards the airport, its air traffic increased tremendously. By early 2002, it became apparent that the airport would be saturated by 2006. As a result, in February 2002, the construction of the second phase was initiated. Originally, the construction were supposed to have ended by December 2008. However, due to the Beijing Olympics in 2008, the construction schedule was modified to allow the construction to end by July 2008.
On 15 November 2006, the Airbus A380 landed at the airport as part of the first leg of its certification trip. During the visit, the airport observed the operation of other air traffic especially during ground operations. The plane was docked into one of its boarding gates to ensure that the aircraft was fully compatible with the airport. The results were satisfactory, confirming that the airport would be fully Airbus A380 capable, from the runways to the taxiways, and up to every single boarding dock.
To further upgrade service, Incheon and major Korean logistics firm Hanjin Corporation (parent company of the Korean Flag Carrier, Korean Air) have signed a contract on 10 January 2008 to build a nine-story hospital near the airport. Once construction is complete in 2011, the Yeongjong Medical Centre is expected to serve nearby residents and 30,000 domestic and international tourists who visit Korea every year to receive medical services.
- February 1992: Master Plan Approved
- November 1992: Phase I Construction and Site Preparation Initiated
- July 1994: North and South Dikes completed
- March 1996: Formally named Incheon International Airport
- May 1996: Passenger Terminal Construction Initiated
- December 1996: Runway Construction Initiated
- 30 June 2000: Construction of basic components completed
- July 2000: Test Operations begins
- November 2000: Opening date announced
- 29 March 2001: Airport Officially Opened
- February 2002: Phase II Construction Started
- November 2002: New passenger airline parking stands constructed (Phase 2)
- October 2003: Construction of new Cargo terminal initiated (Phase 2)
- November 2003: Intra Airport Transit system construction initiated (Phase 2)
- December 2003: Third runway construction initiated (Phase 2)
- June 2004: Passenger Concourse Construction Initiated (Phase 2)
- September 2004: Navigational lights installed (Phase 2)
- January 2005: Power distribution grid constructed (Phase 2)
- April 2005: Final construction of passenger concourse (Phase 2)
- March 2007: Airport Railroad started operation
- June 2008: Phase II Construction Completed
The airport was originally planned to be built in three phases, incrementally increasing airport capacity as the demand grew. This was changed, however, to four phases after the airport was opened.
In Phase 1, the airport had a capacity of 30 million passengers per year, and a cargo capacity of 1.7 million metric tonnes yearly. In this phase, a passenger terminal with a floor space of 496,000 square metres, two parallel runways, a control tower, an administrative building, a transportation centre (the Integrated Transportation Centre, designed by Terry Farrell & Partners), and integrated operations centre, three cargo terminals, international business center, and a government office building were constructed.
Phase 2 construction began in 2002 and was originally expected to be completed in December 2008. However, in an attempt to have the airport ready for the 2008 Beijing Olympics which took place in August 2008, the schedule was modified and Phase 2 construction was completed on 20 June 2008. During this construction phase, a third parallel 4,000 meter-long runway and a 13 hectare cargo terminal area were added. A 16.5 hectare concourse connected to the main passenger building via two parallel 870m long underground passageways was added, with a "Starline" Mitsubishi Crystal Mover APM shuttling passengers between the concourse and the main terminal.
With the completion, the airport has an annual capacity of 410,000 flights, 44,000,000 passengers, and nearly 4,500,000 metric tonnes of cargo. All foreign airlines were shifted to the new concourse, with Korean and Asiana continuing to use the existing terminal. In addition, there were numerous equipment upgrades during the phase, including the newer and better ASDE-X with MRI (Multi Radar Tracking) function, and the ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast) system with the RIMCAS (Runway Incursion Monitoring and Conflict Alert System) function. The installation of four additional sets of ASDE-X antennas is planned to reduce blind spots during heavy rainfall and in preparation for the new runway.
The exact modifications are currently unknown, as Incheon International Airport Corporation (IIAC) has announced that the Master Plan would be reviewed and modified upon completion of the Phase 2 expansion. It is known that the airport will add 2 additional passenger concourses, and a south east passenger terminal, with the Intra Airport Transport (IAT) being extended to cover all passenger terminals and concourses. Recently, IIAC confirmed that its original plan of constructing a new passenger terminal on the transportation center area has been modified. It now has a plan to build the terminal on the north field of the airport.
Estimated to be complete in 2020 this is the final and the ultimate construction stage. Upon completion, the airport will have 2 passenger terminals, 4 satellite concourses, 128 gates, and 4 parallel runways. It will be able to handle 100 million passengers and 7 million metric tonnes of cargo annually, with further possible expansions. The airport is projected to be transformed into one of the top ten busiest in the world by 2020.
Main passenger terminal
The main passenger terminal is the largest in area in South Korea, and the fifth largest passenger terminal in the world, after Dubai International Airport's Terminal 3, Beijing Capital International Airport's Terminal 3, Hong Kong International Airport's Terminal 1 and Suvarnabhumi Airport's passenger terminal, measuring at 496,000 square metres. It is 1060 metres long, 149 meters wide, and 33 metres high. Its construction cost was 1.3816 trillion South Korean Won. It was built using the best technology available to Korea to create an efficient working place for the Airlines and the members of the Airport as well as providing convenient facilities to passengers to give a "warm and cozy feeling", especially to those traveling long trips. The terminal has 44 boarding ports (all of which can accommodate the new Airbus 380), 50 customs inspection ports, 2 biological quarantine counters, 6 stationary and 14 portable passenger quarantine counters, 120 arrival passport inspection counters, 8 arrival security ports, 28 departure security ports, 252 check in counters, and 120 departure passport inspection counters. When phase 2 construction is complete, the satellite boarding docks (concourses) will be connected to the main terminal using two parallel 870 metre long underground passageways equipped with IATs (Intra Airport Transit). Transit to the IBC (International Business Centre) will be provided using the PMS (People Mover System).
- Basement level 1: Basement level 1 is composed of various convenience facilities for passengers and employees. To be specific, there are cafeterias, pastry shops and bakeries, coffee shops, banks, restaurants, music stores, book stores, beauty salons, supermarkets, pharmacies, etc.
- First floor (arrival floor): This floor is where passengers arrive after disembarking from their aircraft and passing through customs. There are various information counters detailing transportation, sightseeing, airport information, etc. There are also various gift stores, fast food restaurants, foreign money exchange centres, etc. Millennium Hall is located on this floor.
- Second floor: This floor is partitioned into 2 areas, the Airside Area, and the Landside Area. On the Airside Area, there are the arrival hallways (hallways linking to the jet ways) which contains and leads to the quarantine stations, and entry ports. On the Landside Area, there is the Great hall at the centre, where the post office, bank, business centre, information systems, etc. are located. On this floor, there is also remote ports, bus lounges, and transfer facilities for those transferring flights. This floor directly connects to the Transportation Centre via 5 transparent glass bridges.
- Third floor (departure floor): As with the second floor, this floor is partitioned off into two partitions, the Airside Area and the Landside Area. At the Landside Area, there are many stores selling fashion wear, sporting goods, and various souvenirs. At the Airside Area, facilities relating to departure are located. This includes security check points, passport inspection counters, and the gates and the waiting areas. There is also Duty Free Shops, convenient stores, and a currency exchange centre.
- Fourth floor: High quality restaurants, souvenir stores, airport image gallery, and the event area is located on this floor. There are also various departure lounges on this floor including a VIP lounge. The CIP and Transit passenger Lounge located on the Airside Area is specially located to offer a special view of the airport and is equipped with showers, prayer room, and various other services.
Passenger Concourse A
The passenger concourse A was completed at the end of May 2008 and all foreign airlines are using this terminal (Gate 101-132) since 10 June 2008. Korean Air and Asiana Airlines are using the main terminal(Gate 1-50).
Baggage handling system
The baggage handling system at Incheon International Airport was initially designed to process 31,000 pieces of luggage per hour, increasing as the airport matured and further expansions were carried out. It utilizes a central computer controlled automatic tilt-tray system that automatically sorts baggage and routes them to their correct destinations by reading the barcode labels as the baggage travels through the system. By design, the average design processing times are 5 minutes for arrival, 15 minutes for departure, and 10 minutes for baggage transfer between planes. The system is completely automatic unless one of the bar codes cannot be read by the barcode reader. In that case, the baggage with the unreadable barcode tag is automatically routed to a facility where airport employees read the barcode manually and have the baggage routed to their correct destination manually. Upon opening of the airport, the system was found to have flaws with its automatic operation and the facility had to be operated on a semi-automatic basis. The flaws have since been corrected and removed. The system consists of a 20 km long conveyor belt. They are separated into standard cargo processing, and large cargo processing. Standard cargo is defined as having a height, width, length, and weight less than 700mm, 450mm, 900mm, and 50kg respectively and large cargo is defined as having a height, width, length, and weight less than 700mm, 600mm, 1500mm, and 70kg respectively. Large cargo are handled separately and are sent to different baggage claim counters. Therefore, it is required to check in at a separate entrance. Currently, the large cargo handling system is the only one in which fragile items can be safely loaded on to an airplane aside from carrying it on.
Cargo Terminal Complex
The Cargo Terminal Complex comprises three cargo terminals, five separate warehouses, 24 parking stands, and administration offices. Each cargo terminal is designed to provide each carrier with unique services, and a cargo warehouse (approximately 3,500 square meters). They are separated into three areas, import, passing and export. The logical manner in which the terminals were designed allow for a highly efficient operation. The cargo terminals also comes with an advanced computer system that helps track each cargo in real time. Using the systems, managers can view individual package information, tracking information, storage information, etc in real time. The terminals also feature various other high tech technologies.
The Cargo Terminal Complex was designed to be able to process 1.7 million tons of cargo per year. However, due to the increased demands, the operators of Cargo A Terminal and Cargo B Terminal has opted to expand their facilities onto the land that is available nearby. As a result, the total processing ability of the complex is currently rated at 2.7 million tons per year. The C Terminal, was not able to expand however, due to the lack of direct airside access. Once Phase II expansion is complete, the airport will have a processing ability of around 4.9 million metric tons per year. This is because the expansion which was originally designed to allow an expansion to 4.5 million tons per year would be adding on top of the current processing ability, which includes the expansions by Korean Air Cargo and Asiana Cargo which was conducted separately on a piece of land that did not conflict with the airport expansion plans.
The Cargo Terminal Complex is operated 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, nonstop. In addition, the automation systems had been upgraded. As a result, it is typical for the airport to output an extra 2 million tons per year processing capability than the original design.
This Cargo Terminal is operated by Korean Air Cargo. It is the largest cargo terminal by both size and capacity. It has a special ability to be able to process special types of cargo such as those requiring refrigeration, or those carrying live animals. This facility has been expanded once in March 2 of 2005 to allow a total processing capability of 1.35 million tons per year. The terminal has an area of 60,000 square meters.
This Cargo Terminal is operated by Asiana Cargo. Although its capacity was to be expanded to 800,000 tons per year, the diminished demand for cargo transportation on Asiana originating from a pilot strike in 2005 has caused the plans to be modified. Currently, the terminals are capable of processing 750,000 tons per year. The terminal has an area of 40,000 square meters.
This Cargo Terminal is operated by the Incheon International Airport Foreign Carrier Cargo Terminal Company. Its users include FedEx, UPS, DHL, as well as other airlines. Due to its location, it could not expand its facilities as with the other terminals without conflicting with the existing plans for airport expansion. As a result, the IIAC is currently constructing a new terminal that would by operated by the IIAC Foreign Carrier Cargo Terminal Co. Once this new terminal is constructed, FedEx and UPS are expected to move into the new terminal while other cargo operators are expected to use the existing terminal.
The terminal is 420 meters long, 120 meters wide, and 19.65 meters tall. Its first floor (warehouse) has a total area of 54,203.32 square meters, and other floors occupy 12,708.88 square meters. Its current total processing capability is 600,000 metrics tons per year. 51 different cargo companies use this complex. This cargo terminal also has an administrative building nearby which houses a snack store, three restaurants, recreation facility, administrative offices, and stationary stores as well as various other facilities. The building is 63m X 36m X 21.55m in dimensions and has a total of 6 floors; one basement, four regular floors, and one roof top floor. Its total area is 8,619.23 square meters and houses 120 different companies and government agencies.
Operation facilities and infrastructures
Located at the center of the airport, the 22 story Control Tower is 100.4 meters tall and is illuminated 24 hours a day. On its highest floor is located a parabolic antenna that is used by the Airport Surface Detection Equipment (ASDE) to detect all airplanes and obstacles within 5 km of the tower. The upper floors are used by ground and tower controllers while the lower floors are mostly for support operations. The control tower has a total area of 179 square meters making it the 3rd largest in the world as of 2001.
At Incheon International Airport, there are three parallel paved asphalt runways in operation, 15R/33L, 15L/33R and 16/34. Runway 15R/33L and 15L/33R are each 3,750 meters long, 60 meters wide, and 1.05 meters thick. Runway 16/34 is 4000 meters long. Runway 15R/33L is used mostly for departures while runway 15L/33R is used mostly for arrivals. This is evident from the amount of rubber present on each runway; runway 15L/33R has more rubber on it due to the higher number of landings. A third parallel 16L/34R runway 4,000 meters long began operation in June 2008. Landing and takeoffs of most passenger flights are done on the new runway and the existing runway 15R/33L while runway 15L/33R is mostly used for cargo flights for its proximity with the cargo terminals. Although the runways are labelled 33 and 34, all three runways have the same heading. Once Phase 4 construction is complete, the airport will have 4 parallel runways, two of them 3,750 meters long and the other two 4,000 meters long. All runways are equipped with ILS CAT IIIb at both sides allowing for operation in visibility conditions as low as 50 meters. As of the date of upgrade, Incheon International Airport was the only airport in Asia to have full ILS CAT IIIb capability. The runway lightings at Incheon International Airport (as well as the taxi lights) are tied into special computers at the control tower. Air Traffic Controllers can provide progressive taxiing to an aircraft by setting the computer to manipulate the taxi and runway lights so that it will lead them to their designated gate or parking stand.
Navigation and communication facilities
- Instrument Landing System: The airport was originally certified for ILS CAT-IIIa operation, but it was upgraded to CAT-IIIb in December 2003 following the recommendation of ICAO in order to reduce flight diversions and cancellations during low visibility conditions. As a result, Incheon International Airport is currently the only airport in Asia to have ILS Cat-IIIb, allowing for operation in visibility conditions as low as 50 meters. Unlike some airports where different runways may have different categories of Instrumental Landing Systems, all runways at Incheon International Airport are equipped with the CAT-IIIb ILS.
- Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR/MSSR): Three different radar sites are used for detecting airplanes near Incheon International Airport. They are located at Wangsan, Shinbuldo, and Gimpo International airport. Each facility has both ASR (Airport Surveillance Radar) and SSR (Secondary Serveillance Radar). Information from all three radar sites are multi-tracked (MRT) using the ARTS and displayed to the controller.
- Airport Surface Detection Equipment (ASDE): Also known as Ground Radar, it scans the ground within 5 km of the control tower. The antenna is located 100.4 meters above ground level on the top floor of the control tower. It is a facility that is required for CAT-III operation of the airport, and uses sophisticated algorithms to automatically assign flight numbers and other information to aircraft within range. It also detects maintenance vehicles as well as various obstacles that my interfere with the operation of aircraft. During the phase II construction of the airport, the ASDE which operates on the Ku-band will be replaced with the ASDE-X to ensure a perfect ground system for CAT-IIIb operation.
- Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (A-SMGCS): This system is tied into the ALS (Airport Lighting System) and was designed to work together. It provides surface movement surveillance, surface movement guidance, and route planning. Its most important feature is its ability to relay taxiing instructions to the pilot. By changing the blinking sequence or the intensity of taxi lights, it can safely guide pilots to their gates or the runway. Because it is computer controlled, it significantly reduces the workload of ground traffic controllers as well as provide an efficient and safe traffic flow.
- PDC/D-ATIS: Incheon International Airport is equipped with a PDC (Pre Departure Clearance) system and a D-ATIS (Digital Airport Terminal Information System). The PDC system allows specially equipped airplanes to receive IFR clearances without the need to contact the Air Traffic Controllers. It is simply stored in a system that can be accessed by the pilots using specialized devices. the D-ATIS automatically generates ATIS information and also provides the ability to send the same information to the pilots using digital texts. These two devices were installed to reduce work load on the air traffic controllers as well as reduce the chances of misunderstandings.
- Communications Navigation Surveillance (CNS/ATM): A high tech satellite is used to provide digital communication, navigation, and surveillance information. The communication and navigation system is available for use to pilots on aircraft that have specially equipped devices. This satellite is also used by the Air Traffic Controllers for Air Traffic Management (ATM) purposes.
The Meteorological System at Incheon International Airport consists of an Automatic Weather Observation System (AWOS), Low level Wind shear Alert System (LWAS), Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR), Long Range Doppler Radar, Weather Station Headquarter, and a Weather Balloon Launching facility.
- Automated Weather Observation System (AWOS): This system observes basic weather conditions and has instruments for detecting wind direction, wind speed, and visibility as well as other instruments such as the ceilometers. Information obtained through this system is directly used by the air traffic controller.
- Low level Wind shear Alert System (LWAS): This system is capable of detecting and/or predicting wind shears occurring at low altitudes. It can also predict wind conditions and storm developments at low altitudes in the immediate area.
- Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR): This Doppler weather radar is used for directly providing visual information to the air traffic controllers in the control tower. It was designed to sense wind strength, wind speed, precipitation rate, precipitation type, lightning occurrence, lightning frequency, wind gusts, and wind gust strength within 90 kilometers of the airport.
- Weather Station Headquarters: This is part of the Korea Meteorological Administration and is used to observe the weather in the area and predict future conditions. Information gathered from this facility is shared world wide and is used to aide aviation. Weather experts work 24 hours a day in this building.
- Weather Balloon Launch Facility: This facility launches remote controlled sound wave weather balloons to continuously observe weather conditions around the airport and transmits the information directly to navigational personnel and the air traffic controller.
- Long Range Doppler Weather Radar: Located at the Weather Station Headquarters, it operates 24 hours a day to observe weather conditions within 480 km of the airport and provide it to the weather experts at the Weather Station HQ, where the information is analyzed and recorded for use by air navigation personnel. The information is also used by the Korea Metrological Administration to provide weather prediction for civilians.
Airport Security Task Force
The Airport Security Task Force is in charge of patrolling the airport perimeter, passenger terminal, transportation center, auxiliary facilities and free economic zones. They are trained to deal with a wide variety of conditions and situations. As a response to on going terrorist threats and various epidemics in the region, they are equipped with the latest gears and specially trained to deal with situations involving terrorists or epidemic control. The security task force consists of police officers and SWAT operators from the Incheon Police Department. Only the specially trained officers are allowed onto the task force and they are on duty 24 hours a day over three different shifts. The facilities related to the Airport Security Task Force are the Airport Security Force Headquarters (Guardhouse), Airport Security Force Branch Office, and the Weapons armory.
- Airport Security Force Headquarters (Guardhouse): The Airport Security Force Headquarters provides the Airport Security Task Force with training, resting, and various recreation. It is also used for administration. The building has a wide variety of options for training, and even includes a swimming pool.
- Airport Security Force Branch Office: The function of this building is very similar to the Airport Security Force Headquarters. One of the major difference is that it is located very close to the control tower, allowing for the deployment of forces anywhere on the airfield within 1 to 2 minutes under ideal conditions. This facility was built to enhance security and efficiency.
- Armory: Located at an undisclosed confidential location, this heavily guarded facility contains automatic firearms and ammunitions as well as various other tactical gear for emergency situations.
This facility is responsible for all emergency situations relating to fire and search and rescue missions. The firefighters are specially trained for dealing with jet fires as well as conducting search and rescue missions on burning planes. They are also trained to be able to respond to natural disasters. There are two fire departments at Incheon International Airport. One is located near the north side of runway 15L/33R and the other is located at the south side of runway 15R/33L near the passenger terminal. Together, they are capable of responding to incidents on the runway usually within 2 minutes, 3 minutes max under ideal conditions.
- Fire Station Headquarters: The Fire Station HQ is located near runway 15L/33R on the west side of the eastern administrative area. They are responsible for extinguishing fire and conducting search and rescue missions on the runways and airport facilities near the eastern administrative area. The Fire Station Headquarters is composed of vehicle, equipment maintenance/storage facilities, office buildings, convenience facilities and welfare facilities.
- Fire Station Branch Office: Located about 500 meters south east of passenger terminal 1 and 650 meters south of runway 15R/33L, its functions are similar to that of the Fire Station Headquarters. The only differences are that this facility is in charge of conducting fire extinguishing, searching, and rescue missions occurring within the passenger terminal and facilities around it. It is also capable of responding to incidents on the runway.
Awards, certifications, and ratings
- In 1998, Incheon International Airport received ISO certifications in airport construction and airport services.
- From 2002, Incheon International Airport won for three consecutive years, the Best Airport Award according to IATA and ACI.
- In 2002, Incheon International Airport was rated second in the Best Airport Worldwide category according to IATA and ACI.
- Incheon International Airport Corporation became the first in the world to receive ISO certification in airport services.
- In 2005, Incheon International Airport won the Best Airport Worldwide 2005 award from AETRA Service Monitoring which was jointly conducted by IATA and ACI.
- In 2006, Incheon International Airport received the ATRS' Top Asia-Pacific Efficiency Award after achieving a residual variable factor productivity efficiency value that was 57% higher than the average of those in the region.
- In 2006, Incheon International Airport was awarded as the world's best airport based on a passenger survey conducted by the IATA.
- Incheon International Airport was named Best Airport Worldwide at the first Airport Service Quality Awards 
- Incheon International Airport received an ISO certification in the environmental category.
- Incheon International Airport was awarded the "Best in Service Award in Class" at the 1st International Conference on Airport Quality and Service by the IATA and the ACI.
- Incheon International Airport ranked second in "Best Airport Worldwide", behind Hong Kong International Airport, and tied with Singapore Changi Airport.
- Incheon International Airport won the GT Tested Award for Best Airport in the World in January 2007. 
- Incheon International Airport named by Global Traveler (GT) as the Best Airport in the World for the second straight year in January 2008.
Accidents and incidents
Accidents and incidents at the airport
No serious or fatal accidents or incidents have been recorded to date.
Accidents and incidents involving the airport
- On 11 September 2001, Korean Air Flight 85, bound for John F. Kennedy International Airport was diverted and escorted by military fighter jets to Whitehorse International Airport after a transponder malfunctioned and caused ground facilities to think that the aircraft had been hijacked. Although the plane was low on fuel, the plane had not been hijacked. The diversion occurred during Operation Yellow Ribbon as part of the Canadian response to the September 11 Attacks in New York City, Washington D.C. and Pennsylvania.
- On 17 December 2005 a GE90-94B engine failed on an Air France Boeing 777 flying from Incheon International Airport to Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport resulting in an unscheduled landing in Irkutsk, Siberia.
Airlines and destinations
Note: Though non-Korean (foreign) carriers started operating from concourse A on June 10th, 2008, all check-in and immigration procedures still take place in main passenger terminal.
|Asiana Airlines||Busan, Daegu, Jeju|
|Korean Air||Busan, Daegu, Jeju|
Although all domestic flights depart from main passenger terminal, the concourse are separated from the concourse for the other gates for the international flights.
|Asiana Airlines||Almaty, Asahikawa, Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Beijing-Capital, Cebu, Changchun, Changsha, Chengdu, Chicago-O'Hare, Chongqing, Clark, Dalian, Da Nang, Frankfurt, Fukuoka, Fukushima, Guangzhou, Guilin, Haikou, Hangzhou, Hanoi, Harbin, Hong Kong, Hiroshima, Ho Chi Minh City, Khabarovsk, Kota Kinabalu, Kumamoto, London-Heathrow, Los Angeles, Manila, Matsuyama, Miyazaki, Nagoya-Centrair, Nanjing, New York-JFK, Naha, New Delhi, Osaka-Kansai, Paris-de Gaulle, Phnom Penh, Phuket, Qingdao, Saipan, San Francisco, Seattle, Sendai, Shanghai-Pudong, Shenyang, Shenzhen, Siem Reap [seasonal], Singapore, Sydney, Taipei-Taoyuan, Takamatsu, Tashkent, Tianjin, Tokyo-Narita, Toyama, Weihai, Xi'an, Yanji, Yantai, Yonago, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk|
|Jeju Air||Kitakyūshū [Begins March 20], Kōchi [seasonal], Osaka-Kansai [Begins March 20]|
|Korean Air||Akita, Amsterdam, Aomori, Atlanta, Auckland, Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Beijing-Capital, Brisbane, Cairo, Cebu, Changsha, Chiang Mai, Chicago-O'Hare, Dalian, Dallas/Ft. Worth, Da Nang, Denpasar/Bali, Dubai, Frankfurt, Fukuoka, Guam, Guangzhou, Hakodate, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Honolulu, Huangshan [seasonal], Istanbul-Atatürk, Jakarta-Soekarno-Hatta, Jinan, Kagoshima, Kathmandu, Komatsu, Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur-Sepang, Kunming, Las Vegas, London-Heathrow, Los Angeles, Madrid, Manila, Milan-Malpensa, Melbourne, Moscow-Sheremetyevo, Mumbai, Munich, Nadi, Nagasaki, Nagoya-Centrair, New York-JFK, Niigata, Ōita, Okayama, Osaka-Kansai, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Phnom Penh, Phuket, Prague, Qingdao, Rome-Fiumicino, Saint Petersburg [seasonal], San Francisco, Sanya, São Paulo-Guarulhos, Sapporo-Chitose, Seattle, Shanghai-Pudong, Shenyang, Shenzhen, Siem Reap, Singapore, Surabaya, Sydney, Taipei-Taoyuan, Tashkent, Tel Aviv, Tianjin, Tokyo-Narita, Toronto-Pearson, Ulan Bator, Ürümqi [seasonal], Vancouver, Vienna, Vladivostok, Washington-Dulles, Weihai, Wuhan, Xiamen, Yanji, Yantai, Zhengzhou, Zürich|
|Air Canada||Toronto-Pearson [restarts 1 May], Vancouver|
|Air China||Beijing-Capital, Chengdu, Chongqing, Dalian, Hangzhou, Qingdao, Tianjin, Weihai, Yanji|
|Air France||Paris-Charles de Gaulle|
|All Nippon Airways||Nagoya-Centrair, Osaka-Kansai, Tokyo-Narita|
|Cathay Pacific||Hong Kong, Taipei-Taoyuan|
|Cebu Pacific||Cebu, Manila|
|China Airlines operated by Mandarin Airlines||Kaohsiung, Taichung|
|China Eastern Airlines||Beijing-Capital, Changsha, Chengdu, Guilin, Haikou, Kunming, Nanjing, Ningbo, Qingdao, Sanya, Shanghai-Pudong, Weihai, Xi'an, Yancheng, Yantai|
|China Southern Airlines||Beijing-Capital, Changchun, Changsha, Dalian, Guangzhou, Harbin, Mudanjiang, Sanya, Shanghai-Pudong, Shenyang, Yanji|
|Delta Air Lines||Atlanta|
|Garuda Indonesia||Denpasar/Bali, Jakarta-Soekarno-Hatta|
|Hainan Airlines||Haikou, Sanya|
|Hong Kong Express Airways||Hong Kong|
|Iran Air||Tehran-Imam Khomeini, Tokyo-Narita|
|Japan Airlines||Nagoya-Centrair, Osaka-Kansai, Tokyo-Narita|
|Lufthansa||Frankfurt, Munich, Shenyang, Busan(Ticket between Incheon and Busan cannot be purchased )|
|Malaysia Airlines||Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur-Sepang|
|MIAT Mongolian Airlines||Tokyo-Narita, Ulan Bator|
|Northwest Airlines||Seattle, Tokyo-Narita|
|Orient Thai Airlines||Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi|
|Philippine Airlines||Cebu, Manila|
|Qatar Airways||Doha, Osaka-Kansai|
|Shandong Airlines||Jinan, Qingdao, Weihai, Yantai|
|Shenzhen Airlines||Fuzhou, Shenzhen|
|Singapore Airlines||San Francisco, Singapore, Vancouver|
|SkyStar Airways||Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Chiang Mai, Phuket|
|Thai Airways International||Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Hong Kong, Taipei-Taoyuan|
|United Airlines||San Francisco, Tokyo-Narita|
|Vietnam Airlines||Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City|
|Vladivostok Air||Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Khabarovsk, Vladivostok|
|Xiamen Airlines||Fuzhou, Xiamen|
|AirBridgeCargo Airlines||Moscow-Domodedovo/Sheremetyevo, St. Petersburg|
|Air China Cargo|
|Air France Cargo||Paris-Charles de Gaulle|
|Air Hong Kong||Hong Kong|
|ANA & JP Express||Osaka-Kansai, Tokyo-Narita|
|ANA Cargo||Osaka-Kansai, Tokyo-Narita|
|Asiana Cargo||Amsterdam, Brussels, Frankfurt, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Los Angeles, New York-JFK, Osaka-Kansai, Penang, San Francisco, Shanghai-Pudong, Singapore, Tianjin|
|Atlas Air||Hong Kong|
|British Airways World Cargo||London-Heathrow|
|Cathay Pacific Cargo||Hong Kong|
|China Airlines Cargo||Shanghai-Pudong, Taipei-Taiwan Taoyuan|
|China Cargo Airlines||Shanghai-Pudong|
|China Postal Airlines||Beijing|
|China Southern Cargo|
|Euro Cargo Air||Brno [tentative launch planned for 2008]|
|FedEx Express||Anchorage, Cebu, Indianapolis, Jakarta, Memphis, Newark, Oakland, Penang, Subic|
|Focus Air Cargo|
|Gemini Air Cargo||Miami, New York-JFK|
|Great Wall Airlines|
|Jade Cargo International||Shenzhen|
|Korean Air Cargo||Amsterdam, Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Beijing, Brussels, Chicago-O'Hare, Copenhagen, Dallas-Fort Worth, Frankfurt, Hangzhou, Hong Kong, Ho Chi Minh City, Jakarta, London-Heathrow, Los Angeles, Milan-Malpensa, Munich, Navoiy, New York-JFK, Osaka-Kansai, Oslo, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Penang, Qingdao, San Francisco, Seattle/Tacoma, Shanghai-Pudong, Stockholm-Arlanda, Tel Aviv, Toronto-Pearson, Xiamen|
|Lufthansa Cargo||Bahrain, Frankfurt, Köln/Bonn, Leipzig|
|Nippon Cargo Airlines||Osaka-Kansai, Shanghai-Pudong, Tokyo-Narita|
|NWA Cargo||Anchorage, Los Angeles, Tokyo-Narita, Wilmington|
|Polar Air Cargo||Chicago-O'Hare, Hong Kong, Los Angeles, Shanghai-Pudong; Seoul-Gimpo|
|Russian Sky Airlines|
|Shanghai Airlines Cargo||Shanghai-Pudong|
|Singapore Airlines Cargo||Singapore|
|Southern Air||Beijing, Chicago-O'Hare, Dallas-Fort Worth, Hong Kong, Los Angeles, New York-JFK, San Francisco|
|UPS Airlines||Anchorage, Dubai, Hong Kong, Köln/Bonn, Manila-Clark, Taipei-Taiwan Taoyuan|
|World Airways||Anchorage, Hong Kong|
|Yangtze River Express||Hangzhou, Qingdao|
- 6000: Jamsil (Lotte World)
- 6001: Seoul Station
- 6002: Cheongnyangni Station (Seoul Metro Line 1, Jungang Line)
- 6003: Seoul National University
- 6004: Geumcheon-Goo
- 6005: Seoul City Hall
- 6006: Cheonhodong (through Lotte World)
- 6007: Songjeong Station (Seoul Metro Line 5)
- 6008: Yeongdeungpo Station
- 6009: Garak Market (Gangnam Bus Station with Metro Line 3 & 7, Gangnam Station Metro Line 2)
- 6011: Seongbook
- 6012: Eunpyeong
- 6013: Myeonmokdong
- 6014: KTX Gwangmyeong Station
- 6015: Myeongdong (Sejong Hotel)
- 6016: Seochodong, Seoul National University Of Education
- City Air Terminal (Line 2 at Samseong Station)
- Dobong, Gangbuk
- Gimpo Airport
- Hotels at Gangnam
- Hotels around Namsan
- Hotels within the four main gates of old Seoul
- Lotte World and Sheraton Walker Hill Hotel
- Nowon, Seongbuk
- Seoul Express Bus Terminal of the Central City
- Seoul Station
- Yeouido and Itaewon
- 111: Dongchundong (Dongnam Apartment)
- 112: Yeonsudong
- 202: Wangsangdong
- 203: Incheon Airport New Town
- 222: Jamjindo
- 223: The 9th & 10th Jugong Apartment Complex at Incheon Airport New Town
- 301: Yeongdeungpo Station (Line 1)
- 301-1: Yeouido Station (Line 5)
- 302: Songnae Station (Line 1)
- 306: Incheon Station (Line 1)
- No Number line to Songnimdong (Yeonsu District Office)
- Ansan, Bucheon, Siheung
- Anseong, Pyeongtaek, Osan
- Dandae Ogeori Station (Line 8)
- Deokso Station, Hanam
- Dongducheon, Yangju, Uijeongbu
- Gapyeong, Cheongpyeong
- Gunpo, Anyang
- Gwangju, Gwacheon
- Icheon (Intercity Bus Terminal)
- Ilsan District, Goyang
- Jinjeop, Toegyewon
- Maseok, Pyeongnae, Guri
- Ori Station (Bundang Line)
- Pocheon (Intercity Bus Terminal)
- Suwon (Castle Hotel at Umandong, Han-il Town/Seosuwon Bus Terminal, Suwon Station, Suwon Bus Terminal, Yeongtong)
- Uijeongbu, Songchu
- Wondang (Deogyang District, Goyang)
- Yeoju (Intercity Bus Terminal)
- Yongin (Intercity Bus Terminal), Suji
Other express buses
- Asan (Intercity Bus Terminal)
- Busan (Bus Terminal at Nopodong)
- Changwon, Masan
- Cheonan (Intercity Bus Terminal)
- Cheongju (Bus Terminal)
- Chungju (Intercity Bus Terminal)
- Chuncheon (Bus Terminal)
- Daejeon (The 3rd Government Complex at Daejeon)
- Gangneung (Intercity Bus Terminal)
- Gunsan (Bus Terminal)
- Gwangju (U-Square at Gwangcheondong)
- Gwangyang, Suncheon
- Jeonju (Jeonju Station of Jeolla Line)
- Mokpo (Intercity Bus Terminal)
- Pohang, Gyeongju
- Taean, Seosan, Dangjin
- Ulsan (Bus Terminal)
- Wonju (Intercity Bus Terminal)
- Cargo Terminal: Free bus service between the passenger terminal and the cargo terminal. Operates every 8 minutes during peak time, every 20 minutes during off peak time.
- Long Term Parking Lot: Free bus service between the passenger terminal and the long term parking lot. Usually operates every 30 minutes except for peak times when it operates every 15 minutes.
The Incheon International Airport Railroad (A'REX), was brought into service on 23 March 2007. The station is located in the Transportation Center adjacent to the main terminal building. The trains of A'REX can speed up to 120 km/h, almost two times faster than a normal subway train and cutting the travel time from Gimpo Airport to approximately 30 minutes. As of 2007, only the first phase of the construction was opened to the public (Incheon International Airport - Gimpo Airport). The remaining phase of the construction is expected to be completed by 2010 (Gimpo Airport - Seoul Station).
Commuter train stations
- Incheon International Airport
- Incheon International Airport Cargo Terminal (3min)
- Unseo (7min)
- Geomam (21min)
- Gyeyang (26.5min, transfer to Incheon Subway Line 1)
- Gimpo Airport (33min, transfer to Seoul Subway Line 5)
Express train stations
- Incheon International Airport
- Gimpo Airport (28min, transfer to Seoul Subway Line 5)
The airport provides a short term parking lot for 4000 cars and a long term parking lot for 6000 cars. When utilizing the long term parking lot, shuttle service to the passenger terminal and the cargo terminal is available. When using the short term parking lot, moving walkways are available to the passenger terminal. Car rental is located nearby the long term parking lot. Link to the main land is provided by the Yeongjong Bridge and an expressway. Tolls are collected at the bridge. A second expressway on the Incheon Bridge is under construction to connect the island with central Incheon.
Taxis will normally occupy the area designated as taxi stands outside the arrival floor. The taxis will have two distinct colors; white (silver) and black. The white taxis are "normal taxis" (일반 택시) which are colored in white with either a blue or green cap on the top of the car. The normal taxis have a basic fee of 1900 won (~$1.41 at 1350 KRW / $1 USD) for the first 2 kilometers (as of November 2007) and additional charges are based on how long you spend your time on your taxi. The fee rises by 100 won each time the machine counts down to zero from 200 (1 on the count-down will be much less than a full second).
The distance fare is 100 won for every 144 meters, or ~695 won per kilometer. In Imperial measurements, that is 1118 won per mile, or 0.83¢ USD per mile at 1350 won / $1 USD.
Special taxis, also known as the "deluxe taxis" (모범 택시; mobeom taeksi), are black in color with gold accent/stripes and are more expensive than regular taxis. As of November 2007, these taxis charge 4500 won ($3.34 at 1350 KRW / $1 USD) for the first 3 kilometers (1.865 miles) and an additional 200 won for every 164 meters the taxi runs. This works out to 1220 won per kilometer, or 1963 won per mile. ($1.46 per mile at 1350 KRW / $1 USD)
Differences between the normal taxi is usually limited to better cars, seats, and equipments such as GPS positioning devices and traffic situation indicators (although nowadays more than half the cabs are decorated with these machines). These deluxe cabs, unlike normal taxis which only take cash, usually carry mobile credit-card terminals which allow customers to use worldwide-accepted credit cards such as Visa, Mastercard, or American Express.
Most taxi drivers operating at the airport can speak English, but in most cases, not fluently and it may be difficult to understand. As a result, some taxi companies offer free translation via cell phone (provided by the taxi driver, to be returned after call is complete), but in most cases, the taxi drivers will not allow this service as the companies force the taxi drivers to pay for the minutes. It is recommended to have your destination written down on a piece of paper before entering a taxi. Be advised, in most cases, the passenger will be expected to pay for the tolls in addition to the taxi fare. Tips are not necessary.
A ferry service from Yeongjong-do to the mainland is available. However, the ferry dock is located at considerable distance from the airport and an alternative means of transport must be sought upon arriving at the island to be able to get to the airport.
- Transportation in South Korea
- List of Korea-related topics
- List of airports in South Korea
- Incheon International Airport Railroad
- Gimpo International Airport - former International Airport now used mostly for domestic flights
- World's Busiest Airports by Cargo Traffic - 4th Place
- World's Busiest Airports by International Passenger Traffic - 10th Place
- ↑ "Airport Service Excellence Awards". ACI website. 2008-02-27. http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/feb2008/gb20080227_985704.htm?campaign_id=rss_topDiscussed. Retrieved on 2008-09-24.
- ↑ Supply Chain Leaders - Incheon International Airport Corporation
- ↑ "Gimpo-Incheon airport rail opens". Korea Herald. 2007-03-24. https://www.koreaherald.co.kr/SITE/data/html_dir/2007/03/24/200703240003.asp. Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
- ↑ Incheon airport serving Seoul wins top honor for service - International Herald Tribune
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 http://www.kois.go.kr/News/News/NewsView.asp?serial_no=20080111012
- ↑ http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/nation/2008/06/113_24956.html
- ↑ http://airportservicequality.ch/news
- ↑ "Premium Travelers Name Incheon International Top Airport Global Traveler Readers have Chosen the Airport as the Best in the World". PR Web Website. 2007-01-21. http://prweb.com/releases/2007/1/prweb498796.htm. Retrieved on 2006-01-27.
- ↑ Euro Cargo Air, a.s. | DESTINATION
- Incheon International Airport - Official Site
- Incheon International Airport Foreign Carrier Cargo Terminal
- Official Site of Korea Tourism Org.: Incheon
- Korea City Air Terminal
- Korea Airport Service
- New Airport Highway Co. - Incheon International Airport Expressway
- Incheon International Airport Railroad (A'REX) - Korean Languageda:Incheon International Airport
de:Flughafen Incheon es:Aeropuerto Internacional de Inchon fr:Aéroport international d'Incheon zh-classical:仁川國際機場 ko:인천국제공항 io:Incheon Internaciona Aeroportuo id:Bandar Udara Internasional Incheon nl:Incheon International Airport ja:仁川国際空港 no:Incheon internasjonale lufthavn pl:Port lotniczy Seul-Inczhon pt:Aeroporto Internacional de Incheon su:Bandara Internasional Incheon fi:Incheonin kansainvälinen lentoasema sv:Incheon International Airport th:ท่าอากาศยานนานาชาติอินชอน vi:Sân bay quốc tế Incheon wuu:仁川国际机场 zh:仁川國際機場